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Uku samar matakai na alli karfe

2022-10-26

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Saboda aikin ƙarfe mai ƙarfi na Calcium Metal, an samo shi ne ta hanyar narkakken calcium chloride ko calcium hydroxide a da. A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, hanyar ragewa a hankali ya zama babbar hanyar samar da ƙarfe na Calcium.


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Hanyar ragewa

Hanyar ragewa ita ce a yi amfani da aluminium ƙarfe don rage lemun tsami a ƙarƙashin vacuum da zafi mai zafi, sannan a gyara don samun calcium.


Hanyar rage yawanci tana amfani da farar ƙasa azaman albarkatun ƙasa, calcined calcium oxide da aluminum foda azaman wakili mai ragewa.

Calcium oxide da foda aluminium da aka niƙa ana haɗe su daidai gwargwado a cikin wani yanki, an matse su cikin tubalan, kuma an mayar da martani a ƙarƙashin injin 0.01 da zafin jiki na 1050-1200 â. Samar da tururin calcium da aluminate.


Ma'anar amsa ita ce: 6CaO 2Alâ3Ca 3CaO⢠Al2O3


Rage tururin calcium yana yin crystallizes a 750-400 ° C. Ana narkar da calcium crystalline sannan a jefar da shi a ƙarƙashin kariyar argon don samun ingot mai yawa.

Yawan dawo da calcium da aka samar ta hanyar ragewa gabaɗaya kusan 60%.


Saboda tsarin fasahar sa shima yana da sauki, hanyar ragewa ita ce babbar hanyar samar da sinadarin calcium a cikin 'yan shekarun nan.

Konewar a cikin yanayi na yau da kullun na iya isa wurin narkewar sinadarin calcium cikin sauƙi, don haka zai haifar da konewar calcium na ƙarfe.


Electrolysis

Na farko electrolysis shi ne hanyar tuntuɓar, wanda daga baya aka inganta zuwa ruwa cathode electrolysis.


W. Rathenau ya fara amfani da electrolysis na lamba a cikin 1904. Electrolyte da aka yi amfani da shi shine cakuda CaCl2 da CaF2. An yi amfani da anode na cell electrolytic da carbon kamar graphite, kuma cathode an yi shi da karfe.


Calcium da aka lalatar da shi ta hanyar lantarki yana yawo a saman electrolyte kuma yana taruwa akan cathode a cikin hulɗa da cathode na ƙarfe. Yayin da electrolysis ke ci gaba, cathode ya tashi daidai, kuma calcium ya samar da sanda mai siffar karas a cathode.


Lalacewar samar da sinadarin calcium ta hanyar tuntuɓar su sune: yawan amfani da albarkatun ƙasa, babban solubility na ƙarfe na Calcium a cikin electrolyte, ƙarancin inganci na yanzu, da ƙarancin ingancin samfur (kimanin abun ciki na chlorine 1%).


Hanyar cathode mai ruwa tana amfani da gami da jan ƙarfe-calcium (wanda ke ɗauke da 10% -15% alli) azaman cathode ruwa da graphite electrode azaman anode. Ana ajiye sinadarin calcium ta hanyar lantarki a kan cathode.


An yi harsashi na tantanin halitta na electrolytic da baƙin ƙarfe. Electrolyte cakude ne na CaCl2 da KCI. An zaɓi Copper azaman abun da ke tattare da gawa na cathode na ruwa saboda akwai yanki mai faɗi kaɗan a cikin babban yanki na abun ciki na calcium a cikin zane-zane na jan ƙarfe-calcium, da ƙarfe-calcium gami da abun ciki na calcium na 60% -65 Ana iya shirya % ƙasa da 700 °C.


A lokaci guda, saboda ƙananan matsa lamba na jan karfe, yana da sauƙi don rabuwa yayin distillation. Bugu da kari, jan karfe-calcium alloys dauke da 60% -65% alli suna da mafi girma yawa (2.1-2.2g/cm³), wanda zai iya tabbatar da kyau delamination da electrolyte. Abubuwan da ke cikin calcium a cikin abin da ke cikin cathode bai kamata ya wuce 62% -65% ba. Aiki na yanzu shine kusan 70%. Amfanin CaCl2 a kowace kilogiram na calcium shine kilogiram 3.4-3.5.


Garin jan karfe-calcium da aka samar ta hanyar lantarki ana sanya shi zuwa kowane distillation a ƙarƙashin yanayin 0.01 Torr vacuum da 750-800 â zafin jiki don cire ƙazantattun ƙazanta kamar potassium da sodium.


Sa'an nan kuma na biyu injin distillation ne da za'ayi a 1050-1100 ° C, da alli ne natsuwa da crystallized a cikin babba part na distillation tanki, da sauran jan karfe (dauke da 10% -15% alli) an bar a kasa na distillation. tanki kuma ya koma electrolyzer don amfani.


Calcium crystalline da aka fitar shine alli na masana'antu tare da digiri na 98% -99%. Idan jimillar abun ciki na sodium da magnesium a cikin albarkatun ƙasa CaCl2 bai wuce 0.15% ba, za a iya distilled da ƙarfe-calcium gami sau ɗaya don samun ƙarfe na ƙarfe tare da abun ciki na â¥99%.


Calcium karfe tace

Ana iya samun tsaftataccen calcium ta hanyar kula da alli na masana'antu ta hanyar ɗigon ɗigon ruwa mai yawa. Gabaɗaya, ana sarrafa zafin jiki na distillation don zama 780-820 ° C, kuma matakin injin shine 1 × 10-4. Maganin distillation ba shi da tasiri don tsarkake chlorides a cikin calcium.


Ana iya ƙara nitride a ƙasa da zafin jiki don samar da gishiri biyu a cikin hanyar CanCloNp. Wannan gishiri sau biyu yana da ƙarancin tururi kuma ba shi da sauƙi mai sauƙi kuma ya kasance a cikin ragowar distillation.


Ta hanyar ƙara mahadi na nitrogen da tsarkakewa ta hanyar distillation, jimlar abubuwan ƙazanta chlorine, manganese, jan karfe, baƙin ƙarfe, silicon, aluminum da nickel a cikin calcium za a iya rage su zuwa 1000-100ppm, da tsaftataccen calcium na 99.9% -99.99% za a iya samu.

Fitarwa ko birgima a cikin sanduna da faranti, ko a yanka a kanana kuma a sanya su cikin kwantena masu hana iska.


Dangane da hanyoyin shirye-shiryen guda uku na sama, ana iya ganin cewa hanyar ragewa tana da tsarin fasaha mai sauƙi, yana amfani da ƙarancin kuzari da ƙarancin lokaci, kuma ya fi dacewa da samar da masana'antu na


Don haka, hanyar ragewa ita ce babbar hanyar samar da ƙarfe na Calcium a cikin 'yan shekarun nan.